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Water Act.

Document type
1994 (2017)
Original source
Photocopy, 14 pp.
Framework law Water rights Waterworks Water abstraction Surface water Groundwater Effluent waste water/discharge Data collection/reporting Hazardous waste Liability/compensation Pollution control Freshwater pollution
Geographical area
Europe, Europe and Central Asia, European Union Countries, Northern Europe

Ownership of groundwater, of designated boundary water bodies, of designated navigable water bodies, of designated water bodies significant from the standpoint of fishery resources, and of other water bodies to be determined by law, vests in the State (art. 5). Ownership of surface water bodies located on private land vests in the owner of the land (art. 4). With limited exceptions, the general public shall have access to water bodies for certain nominated public uses (among others, bathing, water sports, fishing) (art. 7). "Special" uses of water, i.e., those which are carried out by means of waterworks or installations that are likely to affect the conditions of the water, are subject to a government permit, regardless of whether the water in question is public or private (art. 6). "Special" uses requiring a permit include the abstraction of surface water in an amount exceeding 30 m3 per day, the abstraction of groundwater in an amount exceeding 5 m3 per day, the use of mineral water, and the discharge of wastewater (arts. 8 and 15). A permit for special use of water, including a pollution permit, will be granted or refused pursuant to criteria laid down in article 9. With certain exceptions - notably, all public uses, irrigation, groundwater extraction for domestic use, and extraction by the owner of the water body - charges can be levied on uses of water (art. 11).

Full text

References - Legislation

Implemented by

Regulation confirming criteria for discharge of waste water into water bodies and the ground (No. 464 of 1994).

Legislation | Estonia | 1994

Keyword: Pollution control, Soil pollution/quality, Environmental standards, Standards, Protection of environment, Freshwater pollution, Effluent waste water/discharge, Groundwater


Regulation No. 57 of 2011 of Minister of the Environment on the Requirements for laboratories testing the physico-chemical and chemical parameters of water, for the analyses performed as part of those tests and for quality assurance of laboratory operations, and the analysis reference methods

Legislation | Estonia | 2011 (2011)

Keyword: Water quality standards, Research, Procedural matters, Data collection/reporting, Environmental standards, Certification, Freshwater pollution, Pollution control, Standards, Protection of environment


Repealed by

Water Act (2019)

Legislation | Estonia | 2019 (2023)

Keyword: Potable water, Internal trade, Marine area, EEZ-Exclusive Economic Zone, Research, Authorization/permit, Maritime zone, Framework law, Freshwater pollution, Freshwater resources management, Pollution control, Water quality standards, Sustainable use, Water abstraction, Water supply, Enforcement/compliance, Thermal and medicinal waters, Sewerage, Effluent waste water/discharge, Flood, Risk assessment/management, Groundwater, Coastal zone management, Hazardous substances, International relations/cooperation, Special fund, Liability/compensation, Hazards, Early warning system, Environmental planning, Environmental standards, Inland waters, Monitoring, Public health, Recreational water use, Surface water, Sustainable development, Policy/planning, Standards, Protection of environment