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Protocol for Sustainable Development of Lake Victoria Basin

Document type
Field of application
Dec 12, 1985
IUCN (ID: TRE-002034)
Place of adoption
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
Entry into force
Nov 6, 1987
Fisheries, Water, Environment gen.
Transboundary effects Endangered species Wetlands Monitoring Environmental planning Fishery management and conservation Environmental audit International agreement-text Management/conservation Basin/catchment/watershed Freshwater resources management
Geographical area
Africa, Eastern Africa
Lake Victoria

The Parties to this Agreement shall cooperate for the sustainable development and management of the basin in the areas of water resources, fisheries, agricultural and land-use practices, including irrigation, wetlands, environment in general, and wildlife and cooperate on various other matters listed in Article 3. Article 5 concerns equitable and reasonable utilisation of water resources of the basin, whereas section 6 concerns protection and conservation of the basin and its ecosystems, including conservation of wild or endangered fauna and flora, wetlands, and fisheries resources. Article 12 requires States to develop national legislation of EIA; section 14 requires the States to adopt legislation on environmental audits. States are to notify each other on activities that may have transboundary effects (sect 13), adopt measures to prevent ecological harm to neighbouring States (Art 15), and monitor potentially risky activities or natural phenomena and take precautionary measures to avoid ecological damage to neighbouring States (Art 16). Article 17 introduces the polluter pays principle. Article 19 concerns prevention of pollution at the source. Articles 21 to 31 require States to undertake various other actions relative to environment protection, public awareness, planning, infrastructure, etc. States shall adopt legislation to regulate the dumping of waste (Art 32). The Lake Victoria Basin Commission is established under Article 33. Functions of the Commission are outlined in the same Article, whereas Articles 34 to 42 concern the organizational structure. Remaining provisions of this Agreement deal with cooperation with development partners, reporting by partner States, dispute settlement, relationship with other international agreements, in particular the Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community, accession and entry into force.


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Countries Entry into force
Kenya -
Tanzania, Un. Rep. of -
Uganda -

References - Treaties

Superseded by