All deposits, or fields, of mineral resources shall be the exclusive property of the State. According to their economic use and their location, mineral resources shall be defined as mined or quarried as provided for in article 3. The exploitation of mineral resources shall be carried out by State-owned business entities and units under the Ministries or other agencies responsible for the management of such resources (art. 4). All mines shall be delimited by the outline of its deposits, and shall possess accurate maps and plans as provided for in articles 10-13. Opencast, underwater, or underground operation of quarries shall be carried out by the Ministry. Existing quarries, or undeveloped deposits of quarried materials, may, on a temporary basis, be granted for operation or development to Ministries, agencies, Municipal People's Councils, State-owned enterprises, and co-operative entities, who shall address requests for permits to develop quarries to the Ministry of Construction and Construction Materials (arts. 14-20). Articles 21-26 deal with property restrictions, seizures, takings and compensation. Offences and penalties are contained in articles 27-29.