By establishing an action programme for nitrate vulnerable zones these Regulation implement, as regards England and Wales, the requirement in this respect as laid down in article 5 of Council Directive 91/676/EC concerning the protection of waters against pollution by nitrates from agricultural sources. Regulation 3 requires an occupier of a farm or livestock unit comprising all or part of a nitrate vulnerable zone to ensure that the action programme set out in the Schedule is implemented. They also provide for monitoring of the action programme (reg. 6), notices to be served requiring remedial action, and a procedure of appeal against such notices. Breaches of some of these regulations are made criminal offences. The action plan concerns the use of nitrogen fertilizer, chemical fertilizer in general and organic manure. As a general rule the application on land of nitrogen fertilizer shall take into account local environment factors such as soil conditions, climatic conditions, land use and agricultural practice.