This Act establishes new requirements and extensively amends the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to provide enhanced capabilities for oil spill response and natural resource damage assessment by the Service. It requires the Fish and Wildlife Service to consult on developing a fish and wildlife response plan for the National Contingency Plan, input to Area Contingency Plans, review of Facility and Tank Vessel Contingency Plans, and to conduct damage assessments associated with oil spills. Federal trustees shall assess natural resource damages for natural resources under their trusteeship. Federal trustees may, upon request from a State or Indian tribe, assess damages to natural resources for them as well. Trustees shall develop and implement a plan for the restoration, rehabilitation, replacement, or acquisition of the equivalent of natural resources under their trusteeship. Damages collected must be retained in a revolving account for use only to reimburse assessment costs and restore, replace, or acquire the equivalent natural resources. Trustees are to be consulted on the appropriate removal action to be taken in connection with any discharge of oil. In addition to response costs, the Oil Pollution Fund may be used without appropriations to pay the costs of assessments, as well as to pay claims for natural resource damages if there are no funds or insufficient funds from a responsible party. The Service is included in the Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research, established to research and develop methods to restore and rehabilitate natural resources damaged by oil discharges, and to research and evaluate the relative effectiveness and environmental impacts of bioremediation technologies. The Service shall identify ecologically sensitive areas and prepare scientific monitoring and evaluation plans. Research conducted by the Service is to be directed and coordinated by the National Wetland Research Center.