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United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particulary in Africa (June 17, 1994)

Countries/Territories Entry into force Ratification * Simple signature Withdrawal
Afghanistan Dec 26, 1996 Nov 1, 1995 [2] - -
Angola Sep 30, 1997 Jun 30, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Albania Jul 26, 2000 Apr 27, 2000 [2] - -
Andorra Oct 13, 2002 Jul 15, 2002 [2] - -
United Arab Emirates Jan 19, 1999 Oct 21, 1998 [2] - -
Argentina Apr 6, 1997 Jan 6, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Armenia Sep 30, 1997 Jul 2, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Antigua and Barbuda Sep 4, 1997 Jun 6, 1997 [1] Apr 4, 1995 -
Australia Aug 13, 2000 May 15, 2000 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Austria Aug 31, 1997 Jun 2, 1997 [2] - -
Azerbaijan Nov 8, 1998 Aug 10, 1998 [2] - -
Burundi Apr 6, 1997 Jan 6, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Belgium Sep 30, 1997 Jun 30, 1997 [2] - -
Benin Dec 26, 1996 Aug 29, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Burkina Faso Dec 26, 1996 Jan 26, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Bangladesh Dec 26, 1996 Jan 26, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Bulgaria May 22, 2001 Feb 21, 2001 [2] - -
Bahrain Oct 12, 1997 Jul 14, 1997 [2] - -
Bahamas Feb 8, 2001 Nov 10, 2000 [2] - -
Bosnia and Herzegovina Nov 24, 2002 Aug 26, 2002 [2] - -
Belarus Nov 27, 2001 Aug 29, 2001 [2] - -
Belize Oct 23, 1998 Jul 23, 1998 [2] - -
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Dec 26, 1996 Aug 1, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Brazil Sep 25, 1997 Jun 25, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Barbados Aug 12, 1997 May 14, 1997 [2] - -
Brunei Darussalam Mar 4, 2003 Dec 4, 2002 [2] - -
Bhutan Nov 18, 2003 Aug 20, 2003 [2] - -
Botswana Dec 26, 1996 Sep 11, 1996 [1] Oct 12, 1995 -
Central African Republic Dec 26, 1996 Sep 5, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Canada Dec 26, 1996 Dec 1, 1995 [1] - Mar 28, 2013
Switzerland Dec 26, 1996 Jan 19, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Chile Feb 9, 1998 Nov 11, 1997 [1] Mar 3, 1995 -
China May 18, 1997 Feb 18, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Côte d'Ivoire Jun 4, 1997 Mar 4, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Cameroon Aug 27, 1997 May 29, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Congo Oct 12, 1999 Jul 12, 1999 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Colombia Sep 8, 1999 Jun 8, 1999 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Comoros Jun 1, 1998 Mar 3, 1998 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Cabo Verde Aug 6, 1995 May 8, 1995 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Costa Rica Apr 5, 1998 Jan 5, 1998 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Cuba Jun 13, 1997 Mar 13, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Cyprus Jun 27, 2000 Mar 29, 2000 [2] - -
Czech Republic Apr 24, 2000 Jan 25, 2000 [2] - -
Germany Dec 26, 1996 Jul 10, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Djibouti Sep 10, 1997 Jun 12, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Dominica Mar 8, 1998 Dec 8, 1997 [2] - -
Denmark Dec 26, 1996 Dec 22, 1995 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Dominican Republic Sep 26, 1997 Jun 26, 1997 [2] - -
Algeria Dec 26, 1996 May 22, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
European Union Jun 24, 1998 Mar 26, 1998 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Ecuador Dec 26, 1996 Sep 6, 1995 [1] Jan 19, 1995 -
Egypt Dec 26, 1996 Jul 7, 1995 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Eritrea Dec 26, 1996 Aug 14, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Spain Dec 26, 1996 Jan 30, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Ethiopia Sep 25, 1997 Jun 27, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Finland Dec 26, 1996 Sep 20, 1995 [3] Oct 15, 1994 -
Fiji Nov 26, 1998 Aug 26, 1998 [2] - -
France Sep 10, 1997 Jun 12, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Micronesia, Fed. States Dec 26, 1996 Mar 25, 1996 [1] Dec 12, 1994 -
Gabon Dec 26, 1996 Sep 6, 1996 [2] - -
United Kingdom Dec 26, 1996 Oct 18, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Georgia Oct 23, 1999 Jul 23, 1999 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Ghana Mar 27, 1997 Dec 27, 1996 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Guinea Sep 23, 1997 Jun 23, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Gambia Dec 26, 1996 Jun 11, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Guinea-Bissau Dec 26, 1996 Oct 27, 1995 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Equatorial Guinea Sep 25, 1997 Jun 27, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Greece Aug 3, 1997 May 5, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Grenada Aug 26, 1997 May 28, 1997 [2] - -
Guatemala Dec 9, 1998 Sep 10, 1998 [2] - -
Guyana Sep 24, 1997 Jun 26, 1997 [2] - -
Honduras Sep 23, 1997 Jun 25, 1997 [1] Feb 22, 1995 -
Croatia Jan 4, 2001 Oct 6, 2000 [3] Oct 15, 1994 -
Haiti Dec 26, 1996 Sep 25, 1996 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Hungary Oct 13, 1999 Jul 13, 1999 [2] - -
Indonesia Nov 29, 1998 Aug 31, 1998 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
India Dec 26, 1996 Dec 17, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Ireland Oct 29, 1997 Jul 31, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Iran, Islamic Republic of Jul 28, 1997 Apr 29, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Iceland Sep 1, 1997 Jun 3, 1997 [2] - -
Israel Dec 26, 1996 Mar 26, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Italy Sep 23, 1997 Jun 23, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Jamaica Feb 10, 1998 Nov 12, 1997 [2] - -
Jordan Dec 26, 1996 Oct 21, 1996 [1] Apr 13, 1995 -
Japan Dec 11, 1998 Sep 11, 1998 [3] Oct 14, 1994 -
Kazakhstan Oct 9, 1997 Jul 9, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Kenya Sep 22, 1997 Jun 24, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Kyrgyzstan Dec 18, 1997 Sep 19, 1997 [2] - -
Cambodia Nov 16, 1997 Aug 18, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Kiribati Dec 7, 1998 Sep 8, 1998 [2] - -
Saint Kitts and Nevis Sep 28, 1997 Jun 30, 1997 [2] - -
Korea, Republic of Nov 15, 1999 Aug 17, 1999 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Kuwait Sep 25, 1997 Jun 27, 1997 [1] Sep 22, 1995 -
Lao, People's Dem. Rep. Dec 26, 1996 Sep 20, 1996 [3] Aug 30, 1995 -
Lebanon Dec 26, 1996 May 16, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Liberia May 31, 1998 Mar 2, 1998 [2] - -
Libya Dec 26, 1996 Jul 22, 1996 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Saint Lucia Sep 30, 1997 Jul 2, 1997 [2] - -
Liechtenstein Mar 28, 2000 Dec 29, 1999 [2] - -
Sri Lanka Feb 9, 1999 Dec 9, 1998 [2] - -
Lesotho Dec 26, 1996 Sep 12, 1995 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Lithuania Oct 23, 2003 Jul 25, 2003 [2] - -
Luxembourg May 5, 1997 Feb 4, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Latvia Jan 19, 2003 Oct 21, 2002 [2] - -
Morocco Dec 26, 1996 Nov 7, 1996 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Monaco Jun 3, 1999 Mar 5, 1999 [2] - -
Moldova, Republic of Jun 8, 1999 Mar 10, 1999 [2] - -
Madagascar Sep 23, 1997 Jun 25, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Maldives Dec 2, 2002 Sep 3, 2002 [2] - -
Mexico Dec 26, 1996 Apr 3, 1995 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Marshall Islands Aug 31, 1998 Jun 2, 1998 [2] - -
North Macedonia Jun 4, 2002 Mar 6, 2002 [2] - -
Mali Dec 26, 1996 Oct 31, 1995 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Malta Apr 30, 1998 Jan 30, 1998 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Myanmar Apr 2, 1997 Jan 2, 1997 [2] - -
Mongolia Dec 26, 1996 Sep 3, 1996 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Mozambique Jun 13, 1997 Mar 13, 1997 [1] Sep 28, 1995 -
Mauritania Dec 26, 1996 Aug 7, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Mauritius Dec 26, 1996 Jan 23, 1996 [1] Mar 17, 1995 -
Malawi Sep 11, 1996 Jun 13, 1996 [1] Jan 17, 1995 -
Malaysia Sep 23, 1997 Jun 25, 1997 [1] Oct 6, 1995 -
Namibia Aug 16, 1997 May 16, 1997 [1] Oct 21, 1994 -
Niger Dec 26, 1996 Jan 19, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Nigeria Oct 6, 1997 Jul 8, 1997 [1] Oct 31, 1994 -
Nicaragua May 18, 1998 Feb 17, 1998 [1] Nov 21, 1994 -
Netherlands Dec 26, 1996 Jun 27, 1995 [3] Oct 15, 1994 -
Norway Dec 26, 1996 Aug 30, 1996 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Nepal Dec 26, 1996 Oct 15, 1996 [1] Oct 12, 1995 -
Nauru Dec 21, 1998 Sep 22, 1998 [2] - -
New Zealand Dec 6, 2000 Sep 7, 2000 [2] - -
Oman Dec 26, 1996 Jul 23, 1996 [2] - -
Pakistan May 24, 1997 Feb 24, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Panama Dec 26, 1996 Apr 4, 1996 [1] Feb 22, 1995 -
Peru Dec 26, 1996 Nov 9, 1995 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Philippines May 10, 2000 Feb 10, 2000 [1] Dec 8, 1994 -
Korea, Dem. People's Rep. Mar 28, 2004 Dec 29, 2003 [2] - -
Palau Sep 15, 1999 Jun 15, 1999 [2] - -
Papua New Guinea Mar 6, 2001 Dec 6, 2000 [2] - -
Poland Feb 12, 2002 Nov 14, 2001 [2] - -
Portugal Dec 26, 1996 Apr 1, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Paraguay Apr 15, 1997 Jan 15, 1997 [1] Dec 1, 1994 -
Qatar Jun 15, 1996 Mar 15, 1999 [2] - -
Romania Nov 19, 1998 Aug 19, 1998 [2] - -
Russian Federation Aug 27, 2003 May 29, 2003 [2] - -
Rwanda Jan 22, 1999 Oct 22, 1998 [1] Jun 22, 1995 -
Samoa Nov 21, 1998 Aug 21, 1998 [2] - -
Saudi Arabia Sep 23, 1997 Jun 25, 1997 [2] - -
Sudan Dec 26, 1996 Nov 24, 1995 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Senegal Dec 26, 1996 Jul 26, 1995 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Singapore Jul 26, 1999 Apr 26, 1999 [2] - -
Solomon Islands Jul 16, 1999 Apr 16, 1999 [2] - -
Sierra Leone Dec 24, 1997 Sep 25, 1997 [1] Nov 11, 1994 -
El Salvador Sep 27, 1997 Jun 27, 1997 [2] - -
San Marino Oct 23, 1999 Jul 23, 1999 [2] - -
Somalia Oct 23, 2002 Jul 24, 2002 [2] - -
Sao Tome and Principe Oct 8, 1998 Jul 8, 1998 [1] Oct 4, 1995 -
Suriname Aug 30, 2000 Jun 1, 2000 [2] - -
Slovakia Apr 7, 2002 Jan 7, 2002 [2] - -
Slovenia Sep 26, 2001 Jun 28, 2001 [2] - -
Sweden Dec 26, 1996 Dec 12, 1995 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Eswatini, Kingdom of Dec 26, 1996 Oct 7, 1996 [1] Jul 27, 1995 -
Seychelles Sep 26, 1997 Jun 26, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Syrian Arab Republic Sep 8, 1997 Jun 10, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Chad Dec 26, 1996 Sep 27, 1996 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Togo Dec 26, 1996 Oct 4, 1995 [3] Oct 15, 1994 -
Thailand Jun 5, 2001 Mar 7, 2001 [2] - -
Tajikistan Oct 14, 1997 Jul 16, 1997 [2] - -
Turkmenistan Dec 26, 1996 Sep 18, 1996 [1] Mar 27, 1995 -
Timor-Leste Nov 18, 2003 Aug 20, 2003 [2] - -
Tonga Dec 24, 1998 Sep 25, 1998 [2] - -
Trinidad and Tobago Sep 6, 2000 Jun 8, 2000 [2] - -
Tunisia Dec 26, 1996 Oct 11, 1995 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Turkey Jun 29, 1998 Mar 31, 1998 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Tuvalu Dec 13, 1998 Sep 14, 1998 [2] - -
Tanzania, Un. Rep. of Sep 17, 1997 Jun 19, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Uganda Sep 23, 1997 Jun 25, 1997 [1] Nov 21, 1994 -
Ukraine Nov 25, 2002 Aug 27, 2002 [2] - -
Uruguay May 17, 1999 Feb 17, 1999 [2] - -
United States of America Feb 15, 2001 Nov 17, 2000 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Uzbekistan Dec 26, 1996 Oct 31, 1995 [1] Dec 7, 1994 -
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Jun 14, 1998 Mar 16, 1998 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Venezuela, Boliv. Rep. of Sep 27, 1998 Jun 29, 1998 [2] - -
Viet Nam Nov 25, 1998 Aug 25, 1998 [2] - -
Vanuatu Nov 8, 1999 Aug 10, 1999 [1] Sep 28, 1995 -
Yemen Apr 14, 1997 Jan 14, 1997 [2] - -
South Africa Dec 29, 1997 Sep 30, 1997 [1] Jan 9, 1995 -
Zambia Dec 26, 1996 Sep 19, 1996 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Zimbabwe Dec 22, 1997 Sep 23, 1997 [1] Oct 15, 1994 -
Montenegro Sep 2, 2007 Jun 4, 2007 [2] - -
Cook Islands (New Zealand) Dec 21, 1998 Aug 21, 1998 [2] - -
Niue (New Zealand) Dec 14, 1998 Aug 14, 1998 [2] - -
Congo, Dem. Rep. of Dec 12, 1997 Sep 12, 1997 [1] Oct 14, 1994 -
Serbia Mar 18, 2008 Dec 18, 2007 [2] - -
Iraq Aug 26, 2010 May 28, 2010 [2] - -
Estonia May 8, 2012 Feb 8, 2012 [2] - -
South Sudan May 18, 2014 Feb 17, 2014 [2] - -
Palestinian Authority Mar 29, 2019 Mar 1, 2018 [2] - -

* [1] Ratification [2] Accession/approbation [3] Acceptance/approval [4] Succession [5] Consent to be bound [6] Definite signature