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International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994

Document type
Field of application
Jan 26, 1994
IUCN (ID: TRE-001195)
Title (French)

Accord international sur les bois tropicaux, 1994

Title (Spanish)

Acuerdo Internacional de las Maderas Tropicales, 1994

Title (Other)

Internationales Tropenholz-Übereinkommen von 1994

Place of adoption
UN United Nations
English, French, Spanish
Entry into force
Jan 1, 1997
Forest management/forest conservation Policy/planning Sustainable development Management/conservation Timber extraction/logging Monitoring Afforestation/reforestation Transfer Sustainable use International agreement-text Tropical forests Business/industry/corporations Research International organization Special fund Data collection/reporting Law reform/harmonization/deregulation Standards Timber Financing Technology transfer International trade

Objectives: To provide a framework for consultation, international cooperation and policy development with regard to all relevant aspects of the world timber economy and provide a forum for consultation to promote non-discriminatory timber trade practices; To enhance the capacity to implement a strategy for achieving exports of tropical timber and timber products from sustainably managed sources by the year 2000 and promote the expansion and diversification of international trade in tropical timber from sustainable sources; To promote and support research and development with a view to improving forests management and efficiency of wood utilisation as well as increasing the capacity to conserve and enhance other forest values in timber- producing tropical forests; To improve market intelligence with a view to enhancing greater transparency in the international timber market; To promote processing of tropical timber from sustainable sources in producing member countries and encourage to support and develop industrial tropical timber reforestation and forest management activities as well as rehabilitation of forest land; To encourage the development of national policies aimed at sustainable utilisation and conservation of timber- producing forests and their genetic resources and at maintaining the ecological balance in the region concerned, in the context of tropical timber trade; To promote the access to, and transfer of, technologies and technical cooperation to implement the objectives of the Agreement; and encourage information sharing on the international timber market (art. 1).

Summary of provisions: This Agreement succeeds the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983 (art. 48(1)). It contains provisions concerning financial matters, including the establishment of a fund (The Bali Partnership Fund) for sustainable management of tropical timber-producing forests (arts. 18- 23). Members of the International Tropical Timber Organisation undertake to use their best endeavours and cooperate to promote the attainment of the objectives of the Agreement and refrain from implementing measures which would have the effect of limiting or running counter to them (art. 32.1). The Agreement provides that developing importing members whose interests are adversely affected by measures taken under the Agreement may apply to the Council for appropriate differential and remedial measures, and for members in the category of least developed countries to apply to the Council for special measures (art. 34). It also specifies that nothing in the Agreement authorises the use of measures to restrict or ban international trade in, and in particular as they concern imports of and utilisation of, timber and timber products (art.36).

Institutional mechanisms: The International Tropical Timber Organisation (Organisation), established by the 1983 Agreement continues in being for the purpose of administering the provisions and supervising the operation of the Agreement; the Organisation to function through the International Tropical Timber Council (art. 3). The Agreement provides for the institutional arrangements, functions and legal status of the International Tropical Timber Council (arts. 6-17). The Organisation is to undertake policy work and project activities in the areas of economic information and market intelligence, reforestation and forest management and forest industry (art.24). Committees are established to deal with inter alia reforestation and forest management

(Source: IUCN ELC, 08.2005, based on UNEP Register of International Treaties and Other Agreements in the Field of the Environment, 1996)

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