Objectives: To preserve in their natural habitats all species and genera of native American fauna and flora from extinction, and to preserve areas of extraordinary beauty, striking geological formations or regions of aesthetic, historic or scientific value. Summary of provisions: Parties undertake to establish national parks, national reserves, nature monuments, and strict wilderness reserves (art. II). Contracting Governments further agree to endeavour to adopt national measures for the preservation within their boundaries of flora and fauna outside the protected areas referred to in article II (art. V-1). Migratory birds are to be subject to special measures for their preservation and rational utilisation (art. VII). Finally, species listed in the Annex must be provided urgent and complete protection (art. VIII). Contracting Parties accept to co-operate amongst themselves in promoting research and field study in order to further the objectives of the Convention (art. VI). They further undertake to impose controls on trade in protected fauna and flora and any part thereof through a system of trade certificates (art. IX). Institutional mechanisms: This Convention has been signed in the framework of the Pan American Union.