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Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Dec. 11, 1997)

Countries/Territories Entry into force Ratification * Simple signature
Albania Jul 1, 2005 Apr 1, 2005 [2] -
Algeria May 16, 2005 Feb 16, 2005 [2] -
Antigua and Barbuda Feb 16, 2005 Nov 3, 1998 [1] Mar 16, 1998
Argentina Feb 16, 2005 Sep 28, 2001 [1] Mar 16, 1998
Armenia Feb 16, 2005 Apr 25, 2003 [2] -
Australia Mar 11, 2008 Dec 12, 2007 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Austria Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Azerbaijan Feb 16, 2005 Sep 28, 2000 [2] -
Bahrain May 1, 2006 Jan 31, 2006 [2] -
Barbados Feb 16, 2005 Aug 7, 2000 [2] -
Belgium Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Benin Feb 16, 2005 Feb 25, 2002 [2] -
Bangladesh Feb 16, 2005 Oct 22, 2001 [2] -
Bahamas Feb 16, 2005 Apr 9, 1999 [2] -
Bhutan Feb 16, 2005 Aug 26, 2002 [2] -
Burkina Faso Jun 30, 2005 Mar 31, 2005 [2] -
Belarus Nov 26, 2005 Aug 26, 2005 [2] -
Belize Feb 16, 2005 Sep 26, 2003 [2] -
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Feb 16, 2005 Nov 30, 1999 [1] Jul 9, 1998
Botswana Feb 16, 2005 Aug 8, 2003 [2] -
Brazil Feb 16, 2005 Aug 23, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Bulgaria Feb 16, 2005 Aug 15, 2002 [1] Sep 18, 1998
Burundi Feb 16, 2005 Oct 18, 2001 [2] -
Cambodia Feb 16, 2005 Aug 22, 2002 [2] -
Chile Feb 16, 2005 Aug 26, 2002 [1] Jun 17, 1998
China Feb 16, 2005 Aug 30, 2002 [3] May 29, 1998
Cameroon Feb 16, 2005 Aug 28, 2002 [2] -
Congo, Dem. Rep. of Jun 23, 2005 Mar 23, 2005 [2] -
Colombia Feb 16, 2005 Nov 30, 2001 [2] -
Costa Rica Feb 16, 2005 Aug 9, 2002 [1] Apr 27, 1998
Croatia Aug 28, 2007 May 30, 2007 [1] Mar 11, 1999
Cuba Feb 16, 2005 Apr 30, 2002 [1] Mar 15, 1999
Cabo Verde May 11, 2006 Feb 10, 2006 [2] -
Cyprus Feb 16, 2005 Jul 16, 1999 [2] -
Czech Republic Feb 16, 2005 Nov 15, 2001 [3] Nov 23, 1998
Denmark Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Djibouti Feb 16, 2005 Mar 12, 2002 [2] -
Dominica Apr 23, 2005 Jan 25, 2005 [2] -
Dominican Republic Feb 16, 2005 Feb 12, 2002 [2] -
Ecuador Feb 16, 2005 Jan 13, 2000 [1] Jan 15, 1999
Egypt Apr 10, 2005 Jan 12, 2005 [1] Mar 15, 1999
El Salvador Feb 16, 2005 Nov 30, 1998 [1] Jun 8, 1998
Equatorial Guinea Feb 16, 2005 Aug 16, 2000 [2] -
Eritrea Oct 28, 2005 Jul 28, 2005 [2] -
Estonia Feb 16, 2005 Oct 14, 2002 [1] Dec 3, 1998
Ethiopia Jul 14, 2005 Apr 14, 2005 [2] -
European Union Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [3] Apr 29, 1998
Fiji Feb 16, 2005 Sep 17, 1998 [1] Sep 17, 1998
Finland Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
France Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [3] Apr 29, 1998
Gambia Feb 16, 2005 Jun 1, 2001 [2] -
United Kingdom Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Guinea-Bissau Feb 18, 2006 Nov 18, 2005 [2] -
Georgia Feb 16, 2005 Jun 16, 1999 [2] -
Germany Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Ghana Feb 16, 2005 May 30, 2003 [2] -
Greece Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Grenada Feb 16, 2005 Aug 6, 2002 [2] -
Guatemala Feb 16, 2005 Oct 5, 1999 [1] Jul 10, 1998
Guinea Feb 16, 2005 Sep 7, 2000 [2] -
Guyana Feb 16, 2005 Aug 5, 2003 [2] -
Haiti Oct 6, 2005 Jul 6, 2005 [2] -
Honduras Feb 16, 2005 Jul 19, 2000 [1] Feb 25, 1999
Hungary Feb 16, 2005 Aug 21, 2002 [2] -
Iceland Feb 16, 2005 May 23, 2002 [2] -
India Feb 16, 2005 Aug 26, 2002 [2] -
Indonesia Feb 16, 2005 Dec 3, 2004 [1] Jul 13, 1998
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nov 22, 2005 Aug 22, 2005 [2] -
Ireland Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Israel Feb 16, 2005 Mar 15, 2004 [1] Dec 16, 1998
Italy Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Jamaica Feb 16, 2005 Jun 28, 1999 [2] -
Japan Feb 16, 2005 Jun 4, 2002 [3] Apr 28, 1998
Jordan Feb 16, 2005 Jan 17, 2003 [2] -
Kazakhstan Sep 17, 2009 Jun 19, 2009 [1] Mar 12, 1999
Kenya May 25, 2005 Feb 25, 2005 [2] -
Kiribati Feb 16, 2005 Sep 7, 2000 [2] -
Korea, Republic of Feb 16, 2005 Nov 8, 2002 [1] Sep 25, 1998
Kuwait Jun 11, 2005 Mar 11, 2005 [2] -
Kyrgyzstan Feb 16, 2005 May 13, 2003 [2] -
Lao, People's Dem. Rep. Feb 16, 2005 Feb 6, 2003 [2] -
Latvia Feb 16, 2005 Jul 5, 2002 [1] Dec 14, 1998
Liberia Feb 16, 2005 Nov 5, 2002 [2] -
Lesotho Feb 16, 2005 Sep 6, 2000 [2] -
Libya Nov 22, 2006 Aug 24, 2006 [2] -
Liechtenstein Feb 16, 2005 Dec 3, 2004 [1] Jun 29, 1998
Lithuania Feb 16, 2005 Jan 3, 2003 [1] Sep 21, 1998
Luxembourg Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
North Macedonia Feb 16, 2005 Nov 18, 2004 [2] -
Madagascar Feb 16, 2005 Sep 24, 2003 [2] -
Malaysia Feb 16, 2005 Sep 4, 2002 [1] Mar 12, 1999
Marshall Islands Feb 16, 2005 Aug 11, 2003 [1] Mar 17, 1998
Mauritius Feb 16, 2005 May 9, 2001 [2] -
Mauritania Oct 20, 2005 Jul 22, 2005 [2] -
Maldives Feb 16, 2005 Dec 30, 1998 [1] Mar 16, 1998
Mexico Feb 16, 2005 Sep 7, 2000 [1] Jun 9, 1998
Micronesia, Fed. States Feb 16, 2005 Jun 21, 1999 [1] Mar 17, 1998
Mali Feb 16, 2005 Mar 28, 2002 [1] Jan 27, 1999
Malta Feb 16, 2005 Nov 11, 2001 [1] Apr 17, 1998
Malawi Feb 16, 2005 Oct 26, 2001 [2] -
Monaco May 26, 2006 Feb 27, 2006 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Moldova, Republic of Feb 16, 2005 Apr 22, 2003 [2] -
Mongolia Feb 16, 2005 Dec 15, 1999 [2] -
Morocco Feb 16, 2005 Jan 25, 2002 [2] -
Mozambique Feb 16, 2005 Jan 18, 2005 [2] -
Myanmar Feb 16, 2005 Aug 13, 2003 [2] -
Namibia Feb 16, 2005 Sep 4, 2003 [2] -
Nauru Feb 16, 2005 Aug 16, 2001 [2] -
Nepal Dec 16, 2005 Sep 16, 2005 [2] -
Niger Feb 16, 2005 Sep 30, 2004 [1] Oct 23, 1998
Netherlands Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [3] Apr 29, 1998
Nicaragua Feb 16, 2005 Nov 18, 1999 [1] Jul 7, 1998
Nigeria Feb 16, 2005 Dec 10, 2004 [2] -
Norway Feb 16, 2005 May 30, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
New Zealand Feb 16, 2005 Dec 19, 2002 [1] May 22, 1998
Oman Apr 19, 2005 Jan 19, 2005 [2] -
Pakistan Apr 11, 2005 Jan 11, 2005 [2] -
Panama Feb 16, 2005 Mar 5, 1999 [1] Jun 8, 1998
Paraguay Feb 16, 2005 Aug 27, 1999 [1] Aug 25, 1998
Palau Feb 16, 2005 Dec 10, 1999 [2] -
Peru Feb 16, 2005 Sep 12, 2002 [1] Nov 13, 1998
Philippines Feb 16, 2005 Nov 20, 2003 [1] Apr 15, 1998
Papua New Guinea Feb 16, 2005 Mar 28, 2002 [1] Mar 2, 1999
Poland Feb 16, 2005 Dec 13, 2002 [1] Jul 15, 1998
Portugal Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [3] Apr 29, 1998
Korea, Dem. People's Rep. Jul 27, 2005 Apr 27, 2005 [2] -
Qatar Feb 16, 2005 Jan 11, 2005 [2] -
Romania Feb 16, 2005 Mar 19, 2001 [1] Jan 5, 1999
Russian Federation Feb 16, 2005 Nov 18, 2004 [1] Mar 11, 1999
Rwanda Feb 16, 2005 Jul 22, 2004 [2] -
South Africa Feb 16, 2005 Jul 31, 2002 [2] -
Samoa Feb 16, 2005 Nov 27, 2000 [1] Mar 16, 1998
Saudi Arabia Apr 30, 2005 Jan 31, 2005 [2] -
Senegal Feb 16, 2005 Jul 20, 2001 [2] -
Seychelles Feb 16, 2005 Jul 22, 2002 [1] Mar 20, 1998
Singapore Jul 12, 2006 Apr 12, 2006 [2] -
Slovakia Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Feb 26, 1999
Slovenia Feb 16, 2005 Aug 2, 2002 [1] Oct 21, 1998
Solomon Islands Feb 16, 2005 Mar 13, 2003 [1] Sep 29, 1998
Spain Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Sri Lanka Feb 16, 2005 Sep 3, 2002 [2] -
Saint Lucia Feb 16, 2005 Aug 20, 2003 [1] Mar 16, 1998
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Feb 16, 2005 Dec 31, 2004 [1] Mar 19, 1998
Sudan Feb 16, 2005 Nov 2, 2004 [2] -
Suriname Dec 24, 2006 Sep 25, 2006 [2] -
Eswatini, Kingdom of Apr 13, 2006 Jan 13, 2006 [2] -
Sweden Feb 16, 2005 May 31, 2002 [1] Apr 29, 1998
Switzerland Feb 16, 2005 Jul 9, 2003 [1] Mar 16, 1998
Syrian Arab Republic Apr 27, 2006 Jan 27, 2006 [2] -
Tanzania, Un. Rep. of Feb 16, 2005 Aug 26, 2002 [2] -
Thailand Feb 16, 2005 Aug 28, 2002 [1] Feb 2, 1999
Togo Feb 16, 2005 Jul 2, 2004 [2] -
Trinidad and Tobago Feb 16, 2005 Jan 28, 1999 [1] Jan 7, 1999
Turkmenistan Feb 16, 2005 Jan 11, 1999 [1] Sep 28, 1998
Tunisia Feb 16, 2005 Jan 22, 2003 [2] -
Tuvalu Feb 16, 2005 Nov 16, 1998 [1] Nov 16, 1998
United Arab Emirates Apr 24, 2005 Jan 26, 2005 [2] -
Uganda Feb 16, 2005 Mar 25, 2002 [2] -
Ukraine Feb 16, 2005 Apr 12, 2004 [1] Mar 15, 1999
Uruguay Feb 16, 2005 Feb 5, 2001 [1] Jul 29, 1998
United States of America - - Nov 12, 1998
Uzbekistan Feb 16, 2005 Oct 12, 1999 [1] Nov 20, 1998
Vanuatu Feb 16, 2005 Jul 17, 2001 [2] -
Venezuela, Boliv. Rep. of May 18, 2005 Feb 18, 2005 [2] -
Viet Nam Feb 16, 2005 Sep 25, 2002 [1] Dec 3, 1998
Yemen Feb 16, 2005 Sep 15, 2004 [2] -
Zambia Oct 5, 2006 Jul 7, 2006 [1] Aug 5, 1998
Congo May 14, 2007 Feb 12, 2007 [2] -
Gabon Apr 12, 2007 Dec 12, 2006 [2] -
Lebanon Feb 11, 2007 Nov 13, 2006 [2] -
Sierra Leone Feb 8, 2007 Nov 10, 2006 [2] -
Bosnia and Herzegovina Jul 15, 2007 Apr 16, 2007 [2] -
Angola Aug 6, 2007 May 8, 2007 [2] -
Côte d'Ivoire Jul 22, 2007 Apr 23, 2007 [2] -
Montenegro Sep 4, 2007 Jun 4, 2007 [2] -
Serbia Jan 19, 2008 Oct 19, 2007 [2] -
Saint Kitts and Nevis Jul 7, 2008 Apr 8, 2008 [2] -
Tonga Apr 13, 2008 Jan 14, 2008 [2] -
Cook Islands (New Zealand) Feb 16, 2005 Aug 27, 2001 [1] Sep 16, 1998
Niue (New Zealand) Feb 16, 2005 May 6, 1999 [1] Dec 8, 1998
Sao Tome and Principe Jul 24, 2008 Apr 25, 2008 [2] -
Central African Republic Jun 16, 2008 Mar 18, 2008 [2] -
Comoros Jul 9, 2008 Apr 10, 2008 [2] -
Timor-Leste Jan 12, 2009 Oct 14, 2008 [2] -
Tajikistan Mar 29, 2009 Dec 29, 2008 [2] -
Turkey Aug 26, 2009 May 28, 2009 [2] -
Zimbabwe Sep 28, 2009 Jun 30, 2009 [2] -
Iraq Oct 27, 2009 Jul 28, 2009 [2] -
Brunei Darussalam Nov 18, 2009 Aug 20, 2009 [2] -
Chad Nov 17, 2009 Aug 18, 2009 [2] -
San Marino Jul 27, 2010 Apr 28, 2010 [2] -
Somalia Oct 24, 2010 Jul 26, 2010 [2] -
Afghanistan Mar 25, 2013 Mar 25, 2013 [2] -

* [1] Ratification [2] Accession/approbation [3] Acceptance/approval [4] Succession [5] Consent to be bound [6] Definite signature