Protection of the marine environment from land-based activities*
The United Nations Environment Assembly,
Noting that coastal and marine ecosystems have social, economic and strategic values with various functions and benefits for the environment and human life that depends on the resources contained therein and the need for achieving sustainability and healthy coastal and marine ecosystems,
Observing that coastal and marine areas have high vulnerability from the pollution of various land-based activities which can cause a decrease in the quality of the coastal and marine environment,
Noting the 2012 Manila Declaration on furthering the implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities1 which identified nutrient, wastewater and marine litter as priority source categories of marine pollution, and the 2018 Bali Declaration on Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities,
Observing various initiatives addressing threats and problems in coastal and marine areas originating from land-based activities that may have a negative impact on marine and coastal ecosystems,
Noting that coastal and marine resources significantly contribute to the economy and that retaining the high quality of the coastal and marine environment provides ecosystem functions and services in support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals to conserve and sustainably use oceans, seas, and marine resources,
Bis. Recognizing the efforts and actions that member states together with other stakeholders are undertaking to address the threats and problems in coastal and marine areas originating from the land-based activities,
Acknowledging the progress made by various countries in handling the problems of marine and coastal ecosystems by building the capacity of human and institutional resources, developing and applying sound environmental policies for the conservation and sustainable use of coastal and marine environments,
Bis. Noting that the existence of UNEP and independent capacity center exist to address the land-based source of pollution and further noting the ongoing initiative by Indonesia to establish an independent regional capacity center in Bali,
Recognizing the funding challenges related to the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems,
Noting the importance of the contribution of multi-stakeholder partnerships including the public-private partnership, the United Nations inter-agency partnerships, inter-governmental partnerships in the implementation of inter-governmental commitments to advance action on the SDGs,
1. Enhance the mainstreaming of the protection of coastal and marine ecosystems in policies particularly those addressing environmental threats caused by increased nutrient, wastewater, marine litter and microplastics in support of the 2030 Agenda as a framework for sustainable development,
2. Enhance capacity-building, know-how, lessons learned, knowledge sharing through collaboration and partnerships involving governments, financial institutions, private sector, civil society and experts at the regional and global levels in the protection of coastal and marine ecosystems from land-based activities and sources of pollution.
3. Improve the coordination, engagement and support of the work with member states on land-based pollution; and foster the linkages to the Regional Seas, other relevant platforms and international initiatives for effective delivery in an integrated manner;
4. Encourage the exchange of information, practical experience and scientific and technical expertise cooperative and collaborative action and partnership among governmental institutions and organization, communities, the private sectors and non-governmental organizations which have relevant responsibilities and/or experience.
5. Invite member states to take initiative on protecting the marine environment from land-based activities at both national and regional levels by taking into account collaboration and technical cooperation, voluntary technology transfer on a mutually agreed term, capacity building, and exchange of best practices.
6. Request the Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme to provide technical assistance, within existing resources, inter alia through regional seas programme, and Global Partnerships on Marine Litter, Global Wastewater Initiative and Global Partnerships on Nutrient Management of the Global Programme of Action.